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How to Accurately Measure H2O in Gas and Liquid Applications: A Comprehensive Guide

Why do we measure H2O in industrial processes?

Corrosion Prevention:

  • Chlorine is a highly corrosive substance that reacts with metals, especially in the presence of moisture. The formation of hydrochloric acid from the reaction between chlorine and water accelerates corrosion.

  • Corrosion can compromise the integrity of equipment, pipelines, pumps, and storage containers, leading to leaks, structural failures, and safety hazards. Safety Concerns:

  • Moisture reacts with chlorine to produce hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Both substances can be hazardous, posing risks to human health and safety.

  • Hydrogen chloride is a strong acid and can contribute to the corrosive effects of chlorine. Hypochlorous acid is a powerful oxidizing agent and can react with various materials. Product Purity:

  • Many industrial applications of chlorine require high-purity gas or liquid to ensure the desired chemical reactions and end product quality.

  • Moisture can introduce impurities, affecting the concentration and composition of chlorine. This is undesirable in applications such as water treatment, pharmaceuticals, and chemical manufacturing. Transportation and Storage:

  • Moisture in chlorine can lead to the formation of ice or frost in storage and transportation vessels, especially when exposed to low temperatures.

  • The presence of ice can cause blockages in pipelines and valves, leading to pressure differentials and safety concerns during handling, transportation, and storage. Reaction Efficiency:

  • In industrial processes where chlorine serves as a reactant, the presence of moisture can interfere with chemical reactions.

  • Moisture may react with other chemicals involved in the process, leading to the formation of byproducts that are undesirable or harmful. This can reduce the overall efficiency of the manufacturing process.

In 2000 a natural gas pipeline explosion in Carlsbad, N.M. had killed 12 people. The explosion was due to corrosion from the combination of microbes, moisture and contaminants such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide caused the corrosion.

How to maintain a low H2O content?

  • Drying agents: Chemicals or materials that absorb moisture are often used to remove water from chlorine gas or liquid.

  • Moisture traps: Specialized equipment is employed to capture and remove moisture during the manufacturing, storage, and transportation processes.

  • Controlled environments: Facilities may be designed with controlled humidity levels to minimize the risk of moisture contamination.

  • Quality control: Rigorous testing and monitoring procedures are implemented to ensure the purity of chlorine at various stages of production and distribution.

BARTEC's Moisture Probe are rated Class 1 Division 1 and can handle pressures up to 2800 PSIG. Materials available to handle corrosive liquid or gases

Analyzer Best Practices for measuring low level H2O

Sample Line Length: The endeavor to minimize sample line length aims to curtail surface area exposure, thereby mitigating the propensity for moisture molecules to adhere or adsorb onto the surface. This reduction in surface area subsequently attenuates the retardation of measurement response time.

Reduced Diameter Sample Lines: Adoption of sample lines with diminished diameters serves to diminish internal volume, thereby engendering expedited response times and mitigating the accumulation of moisture within the system.

Integration of Heated Sample Lines: The incorporation of heated sample lines serves the dual purpose of averting moisture adhesion to internal surfaces and mitigating the effects of ambient temperature fluctuations, thus ensuring the consistency of measurement readings.

Mitigation of Dead Legs: The elimination of dead legs, which represent segments within the sample system conducive to moisture accumulation and subsequent release during alterations in pressure or flow, is imperative to uphold measurement accuracy.

From Left to right: Raw Finish, Passivated, and Electropolished

Selecting the right vendor and technologies

1. Analytical Technology:

   - Your analyzer should employ advanced analytical technology capable of accurately measuring trace amounts of water in chlorine. Technologies such as spectroscopy NIR TDLAS or Refractive Index maybe used.


2. Sensitivity and Range:

   - The analyzer should have high sensitivity to detect low concentrations of water in chlorine, as even trace amounts can have a significant impact on corrosion and chemical processes. Additionally, it should offer a suitable measurement range to accommodate the varying moisture levels that might be encountered in different industrial processes.


3. Precision and Accuracy:

   - Precision and accuracy are crucial in industrial settings where processes depend on specific chemical concentrations. Your analyzer should provide reliable and consistent results to ensure the quality and safety of the chlorine being used.


4. Robustness and Reliability:

   - Industrial environments can be harsh, with temperature variations and potential exposure to corrosive substances. Your analyzer should be robust and designed to withstand such conditions to ensure reliable performance over time.


5. Real-time Monitoring:

   - Offering real-time monitoring capabilities is advantageous for industries where processes are dynamic and require immediate adjustments based on water content in chlorine. Real-time data allows for proactive control and optimization of processes.


6. Ease of Use:

   - The analyzer should be user-friendly, with an intuitive interface and straightforward operation. This ensures that operators can easily integrate it into their processes and perform routine maintenance without extensive training.


7. Data Logging and Connectivity:

   - Incorporating data logging capabilities allows users to track historical trends in moisture levels. Connectivity features such as USB, Ethernet, or wireless options enable data transfer and integration with control systems, facilitating a more comprehensive process monitoring approach.


8. Calibration and Maintenance:

   - The analyzer should be designed for easy calibration and periodic maintenance. Regular calibration ensures the accuracy of measurements, while simplified maintenance procedures reduce downtime and operational disruptions.


9. Compliance with Standards:

   - Ensure that your analyzer complies with relevant industry standards and regulations. This can be a crucial factor for industries that must adhere to specific guidelines for quality control and safety.


10. Customer Support and Training:

    - Provide comprehensive customer support and training to assist users in optimizing the performance of the analyzer. This can include technical support, training sessions, and readily available documentation.


By emphasizing these features and addressing the specific needs of industries using chlorine, you can position your analyzer as a reliable and valuable tool for monitoring and controlling water content in chlorine, contributing to improved safety and efficiency in industrial processes.

Preferred Technology for Chlorinated Liquid or Gas Processes

Introducing the Hygrophil-F by BARTEC - your ultimate solution for measuring H2O in corrosive gases or liquids without the hassle. Say goodbye to long dry down times, constant probe replacements, and tedious re-calibrations. Here's why the Hygrophil-F is your go-to choice:

  • Cost-Efficient: Install up to 3 probes per analyzer to minimize capital expenditure (CAPEX). 

  • Low Maintenance: Solid-state design with no moving parts or consumables, significantly reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). No dryers, No switching valves, etc.

  • Measure H2O directly in liquids to eliminate the need for vaporizer

  • High Precision: Achieve precise measurements down to 0.02 ppm or 20 ppb.

  • Cutting-Edge Technology: Utilizes refractive index via an LED light source for accurate readings.

  • Calibration-Free: No need for frequent calibrations as we're not measuring transmission/absorbance, simplifying your workflow.

  • Preventative Maintenance is cleaning off the probe tip with an approved solvent.

  • Experience the efficiency and reliability of the Hygrophil-F for all your moisture measurement needs.

Bartec Hygrophil-F Rack which contains the electronics and LED light source along with 3 refractive index probes

Click on the button to contact Bobby Singh or Greg Brumfield

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